Online First Article

Text Formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.

  • Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.

  • Use italics for emphasis.

  • Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.

  • Do not use field functions.

  • Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.

  • Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.

  • Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.Note: If you use Word 2007, do not create the equations with the default equation editor but use the Microsoft equation editor or MathType instead.

  • Save your file in doc format. Do not submit docx files.

Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX.



Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.


Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.


Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables. Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols. Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.


Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.



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