Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM) - Abstract


Serum and urine metabolomics study reveals a distinct diagnostic model for cancer cachexia

TQuan-Jun Yang, Jiang-Rong Zhao, Juan Hao, Bin Li, Yan Huo, Yong-Long Han, Li-Li Wan, Jie Li, Jinlu Huang, Jin Lu, Gen-Jin Yang, Cheng Guo

 

Background

Cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome with high morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced cancer. The diagnosis of cancer cachexia depends on objective measures of clinical symptoms and a history of weight loss, which lag behind disease progression and have limited utility for the early diagnosis of cancer cachexia. In this study, we performed a nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics analysis to reveal the metabolic profile of cancer cachexia and establish a diagnostic model.

Methods

Eighty-four cancer cachexia patients, 33 pre-cachectic patients, 105 weight-stable cancer patients, and 74 healthy controls were included in the training and validation sets. Comparative analysis was used to elucidate the distinct metabolites of cancer cachexia, while metabolic pathway analysis was employed to elucidate reprogramming pathways. Random forest, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to select and validate the biomarker metabolites and establish a diagnostic model.

Results

Forty-six cancer cachexia patients, 22 pre-cachectic patients, 68 weight-stable cancer patients, and 48 healthy controls were included in the training set, and 38 cancer cachexia patients, 11 pre-cachectic patients, 37 weight-stable cancer patients, and 26 healthy controls were included in the validation set. All four groups were age-matched and sex-matched in the training set. Metabolomics analysis showed a clear separation of the four groups. Overall, 45 metabolites and 18 metabolic pathways were associated with cancer cachexia. Using random forest analysis, 15 of these metabolites were identified as highly discriminating between disease states. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to create a distinct diagnostic model with an area under the curve of 0.991 based on three metabolites. The diagnostic equation was Logit(P) = −400.53 – 481.88 × log(Carnosine) −239.02 × log(Leucine) + 383.92 × log(Phenyl acetate), and the result showed 94.64% accuracy in the validation set.

Conclusions

This metabolomics study revealed a distinct metabolic profile of cancer cachexia and established and validated a diagnostic model. This research provided a feasible diagnostic tool for identifying at-risk populations through the detection of serum metabolites.

 

Yang, Q.-J., Zhao, J.-R., Hao, J., Li, B., Huo, Y., Han, Y.-L., Wan, L.-L., Li, J., Huang, J., Lu, J., Yang, G.-J., and Guo, C. (2017) Serum and urine metabolomics study reveals a distinct diagnostic model for cancer cachexia. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, doi: 10.1002/jcsm.12246.

 

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