Article first published online:  13 January 2019

Nadja Scherbakov, Wolfram Doehner

Cachexia as a common characteristic in multiple chronic disease
no abstract

Scherbakov, N., and Doehner, W. (2018) Cachexia as a common characteristic in multiple chronic disease. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1189–1191. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12388.

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     Article first published online:  29 January 2019

Louise G. Shewan

Contemporary publication patterns in the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle by type and sub‐speciality: facts and numbers
no abstract

Shewan, L. G. (2018) Contemporary publication patterns in the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle by type and sub‐speciality: facts and numbers. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1192–1195. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12385.

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     Article first published online:  29 January 2019

John E. Morley

Treatment of sarcopenia: the road to the future
no abstract

Morley, J. E. (2018) Treatment of sarcopenia: the road to the future. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1196–1199. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12386.

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     Article first published online:  13 January 2019

Justin C. Brown, Elizabeth M. Cespedes Feliciano, Bette J. Caan

The evolution of body composition in oncology—epidemiology, clinical trials, and the future of patient care: facts and numbers
There is growing interest from the oncology community to understand how body composition measures can be used to improve the delivery of clinical care for the 18.1 million individuals diagnosed with cancer annually. Methods that distinguish muscle from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, such as computed tomography (CT), may offer new insights of important risk factors and improved prognostication of outcomes over alternative measures such as body mass index. In a meta-analysis of 38 studies, low muscle area assessed from clinically acquired CT was observed in 27.7% of patients with cancer and associated with poorer overall survival [hazard ratio: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.32–1.56]. Therapeutic interventions such as lifestyle and pharmacotherapy that modify all aspects of body composition and reduce the incidence of poor clinical outcomes are needed in patients with cancer. In a meta-analysis of six randomized trials, resistance training exercise increased lean body mass assessed from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [mean difference (MD): +1.07 kg, 95% CI: 0.76–1.37; P < 0.001] and walking distance [MD: +143 m, 95% CI: 70–216; P < 0.001] compared with usual care control in patients with non-metastatic cancer. In a meta-analysis of five randomized trials, anamorelin (a ghrelin agonist) significantly increased lean body mass [MD: +1.10 kg, 95% CI: 0.35–1.85; P = 0.004] but did not improve handgrip strength [MD: 0.52 kg, 95% CI: -0.09–1.13; P = 0.09] or overall survival compared with placebo [HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.85–1.14; P = 0.84] in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer. Early screening to identify individuals with occult muscle loss, combined with multimodal interventions that include lifestyle therapy with resistance exercise training and dietary supplementation combined with pharmacotherapy, may be necessary to provide a sufficient stimulus to prevent or slow the cascade of tissue wasting. Rapid, cost-efficient, and feasible methods to quantify muscle and adipose tissue distribution are needed if body composition assessment is to be integrated into large-scale clinical workflows. Fully automated analysis of body composition from clinically acquired imaging is one example. The study of body composition is one of the most provocative areas in oncology that offers tremendous promise to help patients with cancer live longer and healthier lives.

Brown, J. C., Cespedes Feliciano, E. M., and Caan, B. J. (2018) The evolution of body composition in oncology—epidemiology, clinical trials, and the future of patient care: facts and numbers. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1200–1208. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12379.

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PERSPECTIVE     Article first published online:  29 January 2019

Tsuyoshi Suzuki, Jochen Springer

MicroRNAs in muscle wasting
no abstract

Suzuki, T., and Springer, J. (2018) MicroRNAs in muscle wasting. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1209–1212. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12384.

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     Article first published online:  18 October 2018

Francesca Riuzzi, Guglielmo Sorci, Roberta Sagheddu, Sara Chiappalupi, Laura Salvadori, Rosario Donato

RAGE in the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle
Emerging evidence suggests that the signalling of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) is critical for skeletal muscle physiology controlling both the activity of muscle precursors during skeletal muscle development and the correct time of muscle regeneration after acute injury. On the other hand, the aberrant re‐expression/activity of RAGE in adult skeletal muscle is a hallmark of muscle wasting that occurs in response to ageing, genetic disorders, inflammatory conditions, cancer, and metabolic alterations. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action and the ligands of RAGE involved in myoblast differentiation, muscle regeneration, and muscle pathological conditions. We highlight potential therapeutic strategies for targeting RAGE to improve skeletal muscle function.

Riuzzi, F., Sorci, G., Sagheddu, R., Chiappalupi, S., Salvadori, L., and Donato, R. (2018) RAGE in the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1213–1234. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12350.

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     Article first published online:  29 October 2018

Robert H. Schüchen, Martin Mücke, Milka Marinova, Dmitrij Kravchenko, Winfried Häuser, Lukas Radbruch, Rupert Conrad

Systematic review and meta‐analysis on non‐opioid analgesics in palliative medicine
Non‐opioid analgesics are widely used for pain relief in palliative medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence‐based recommendations addressing the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of non‐opioids in this field. A comprehensive systematic review and meta‐analysis on current evidence can provide a basis for sound recommendations in clinical practice. A database search for controlled trials on the use of non‐opioids in adult palliative patients was performed in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE from inception to 18 February 2018. Endpoints were pain intensity, opioid‐sparing effects, safety, and quality of life. Studies with similar patients, interventions, and outcomes were included in the meta‐analyses. Our systematic search was able to only identify studies dealing with cancer pain. Of 5991 retrieved studies, 43 could be included (n = 2925 patients). There was no convincing evidence for satisfactory pain relief by acetaminophen alone or in combination with strong opioids. We found substantial evidence of moderate quality for a satisfactory pain relief in cancer by non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), flupirtine, and dipyrone compared with placebo or other analgesics. There was no evidence for a superiority of one specific non‐opioid. There was moderate quality of evidence for a similar pain reduction by NSAIDs in the usual dosage range compared with up to 15 mg of morphine or opioids of equianalgesic potency. The combination of NSAID and step III opioids showed a beneficial effect, without a decreased tolerability. There is scarce evidence concerning the combination of NSAIDs with weak opioids. There are no randomized‐controlled studies on the use of non‐opioids in a wide range of end‐stage diseases except for cancer. Non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs, flupirtine, and dipyrone can be recommended for the treatment of cancer pain either alone or in combination with strong opioids. The use of acetaminophen in the palliative setting cannot be recommended. Studies are not available for long‐term use. There is a lack of evidence regarding pain treatment by non‐opioids in specific cancer entities.

Schüchen, R. H., Mücke, M., Marinova, M., Kravchenko, D., Häuser, W., Radbruch, L., and Conrad, R. (2018) Systematic review and meta‐analysis on non‐opioid analgesics in palliative medicine. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1235–1254. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12352.

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     Article first published online:  30 November 2018

Robert H. Schüchen, Martin Mücke, Milka Marinova, Dmitrij Kravchenko, Winfried Häuser, Lukas Radbruch, Rupert Conrad

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of sarcopenia: the S100B perspective
Primary sarcopenia is a condition of reduced skeletal muscle mass and strength, reduced agility, and increased fatigability and risk of bone fractures characteristic of aged, otherwise healthy people. The pathogenesis of primary sarcopenia is not completely understood. Herein, we review the essentials of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of skeletal mass maintenance; the alterations of myofiber metabolism and deranged properties of muscle satellite cells (the adult stem cells of skeletal muscles) that underpin the pathophysiology of primary sarcopenia; the role of the Ca2+-sensor protein, S100B, as an intracellular factor and an extracellular signal regulating cell functions; and the functional role of S100B in muscle tissue. Lastly, building on recent results pointing to S100B as to a molecular determinant of myoblast–brown adipocyte transition, we propose S100B as a transducer of the deleterious effects of accumulation of reactive oxygen species in myoblasts and, potentially, myofibers concurring to the pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

Riuzzi, F., Sorci, G., Arcuri, C., Giambanco, I., Bellezza, I., Minelli, A., and Donato, R. (2018) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of sarcopenia: the S100B perspective. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1255–1268. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12363.

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CORRESPONDENCEl     Article first published online:  24 January 2019

Brian C. Clark, Dallin Tavoia, Bret H. Goodpaster, Peggy M. Cawthon, Ross D. Hansen, Todd M. Manini

Comment on: “Pitfalls in the measurement of muscle mass: a need for a reference standard” by Buckinx et al.
no abstract

Clark, B. C., Tavoian, D., Goodpaster, B. H., Cawthon, P. M., Hansen, R. D., and Manini, T. M. (2018) Comment on: “Pitfalls in the measurement of muscle mass: a need for a reference standard” by Buckinx et al. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1269–1271. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12372.

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CORRESPONDENCEl     Article first published online:  29 January 2019

Fanny Buckinx, Francesco Landi, Matteo Cesari, Roger A. Fieding, Marjolein Visser, Klaus Engelke, Stefania Maggi, Elaine Dennison, Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Sophie Allepaerts, Jurgen Bauer, Ivan Bautmans, Maria-Luisa Brandi, Olivier Bruyère, Tommy Cederholm, Francesca Cerreta, Antonio Cherubini, Cyrus Cooper, Alphonso Cruz-Jentoft, Eugene McCloskey. Bess Dawson-Hughes

The authors reply: Letter on: “Pitfalls in the measurement of muscle mass: a need for a reference standard” by Clark et al.
However, semantics aside, we think that DXA can indeed serve as a reference standard for measuring muscle mass. Obviously, CT and MRI are advanced techniques that can and have been used to obtain important information such as muscle size/volume and more recently amount and distribution of intra‐ and intermuscular adipose tissue. Also individual muscles can be assessed separately. However, with respect to muscle mass, the comparison of DXA with CT/MRI is rather difficult because DXA and QCT/MRI measure different physical parameters

Buckinx, F., Landi, F., Cesari, M., Fieding, R. A., Visser, M., Engelke, K., Maggi, S., Dennison, E., Al-Daghri, N. M., Allepaerts, S., Bauer, J., Bautmans, I., Brandi, M.-L., Bruyère, O., Cederholm, T., Cerreta, F., Cherubini, A., Cooper, C., Cruz-Jentoft, A., McCloskey, E., Dawson-Hughes, B., Kaufman, J.-M., Laslop, A., Petermans, J., Reginster, J.-Y., Rizzoli, R., Robinson, S., Rolland, Y., Rueda, R., Vellas, B., and Kanis, J. A. (2018) The authors reply: Letter on: “Pitfalls in the measurement of muscle mass: a need for a reference standard” by Clark et al. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 9: 1272–1274. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12387.

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